As attorneys representing the injured worker in Pennsylvania, there is a call we get far too often. It starts with the injured worker telling us that they lost their case before the Workers’ Compensation Judge (WCJ) and need assistance in litigating an appeal before the Workers’ Compensation Appeal Board (WCAB). Unfortunately, in the vast majority of these cases, we are simply unable to offer help to the injured worker.
The role of the WCJ in Pennsylvania workers’ compensation is something we have discussed on this blog in the past. Essentially, the WCJ is the ultimate Finder of Fact. When a credibility determination has to be made, it is the province of the WCJ to do so. As long as there is support in the evidentiary record, and the WCJ explains his or her reasoning, these credibility determinations cannot be reversed or changed on appeal. Even if the appellate body, whether the WCAB, the Commonwealth Court of Pennsylvania, or even the Pennsylvania Supreme Court, admits it would have concluded otherwise, it still cannot change the Findings of Fact or credibility determinations rendered by the WCJ.
So, you may be wondering, if an appellate court cannot change the Findings of Fact or determinations of credibility of a WCJ, what is required then on appeal? Basically, a successful appeal requires that it be shown the WCJ made an error of law. An appellant would have to show that there is no substantial basis to support the ultimate Conclusion of Law made by the WCJ. In other words, accepting the facts as found by the WCJ, the appellant should still have won. For better or worse (depending if you win before the WCJ), it is pretty rare to find a true “error of law” made by the WCJ. This is why we can rarely help an injured worker with an appeal, when the injured worker does not contact us until he or she loses in front of the WCJ.