Which Workers’ Comp Appellate Decisions Count in PA?
On our blog, as you probably noticed, we like to share court opinions which are of interest to the injured worker in PA. Typically, of course, these opinions deal with interpretations of the Pennsylvania Workers’ Compensation Act (Act). Also, typically, these are opinions rendered by the Commonwealth Court of Pennsylvania. Why that court? And are all decisions of Commonwealth Court the same? Glad you asked!
Once a Workers’ Compensation Judge (WCJ) renders a decision, the next level of appellate review is the Workers’ Compensation Appeal Board (WCAB). This is a process we have discussed on this blog in the past. Decisions rendered by the WCAB can be cited to WCJs, by attorneys, in future cases, but the WCAB opinions are only “persuasive” not “binding.” This means that a WCJ need not follow a decision of the WCAB. For this reason, we rarely devote a blog posting to a WCAB decision.
After the WCAB issues a decision, an appeal can be taken to the Commonwealth Court of Pennsylvania. Like with the WCAB, an appeal to Commonwealth Court is a right, so the Commonwealth Court cannot decline an appeal. The Commonwealth Court will then make a decision. This is either “reported” or “unreported.” These terms have their usual meaning – a “reported” decision is published in a law reporter; an “unpublished” one may not. More importantly, as a practical matter, a “reported” decision can be cited in future cases (and is binding on both the WCJ and the WCAB). While an “unreported” case can be cited in future cases, like a WCAB opinion, it is not binding on a WCJ (only persuasive). Though they are far more plentiful, “unpublished” decisions are not typically made blog posts by us. They simply are not as significant, since they need not be followed. Note that an “unpublished” on “unreported” decision, upon motion of a party, could be changed to “published” or “reported.”
The party who loses at the Commonwealth Court level can request appeal to the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. Unlike the lower levels, the Supreme Court has the discretion whether to allow the appeal or not. Most cases are not accepted by the Supreme Court. Only those cases with novel issues, or where the law is unclear, are generally accepted. Since the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania is selective in the cases it accepts (few of which deal with the Act), and issues far fewer decisions than the Commonwealth Court in general, most of our blog posts come from “reported” decisions of the Commonwealth Court.